Schizophr Bull. 2008 May;34(3):435-43. Epub 2007 Sep 3.
First aid recommendations for psychosis: using the Delphi method to gain consensus between mental health consumers, carers, and clinicians.
Langlands RL, Jorm AF, Kelly CM, Kitchener BA.
ORYGEN Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
BACKGROUND: Members of the general public often lack the knowledge and skills to intervene effectively to help someone who may be developing a psychotic illness before appropriate professional help is received. METHODS: We used the Delphi method to determine recommendations on first aid for psychosis. An international panel of 157 mental health consumers, carers, and clinicians completed a 146-item questionnaire about how a member of the public could help someone who may be experiencing psychosis. The panel members rated each questionnaire item according to whether they believed the statement should be included in the first aid recommendations. The results were analyzed by comparing consensus rates across the 3 groups. Three rounds of ratings were required to consolidate consensus levels. RESULTS: Eighty-nine items were endorsed by >or=80% of panel members from all 3 groups as essential or important for psychosis first aid. These items were grouped under the following 9 headings: how to know if someone is experiencing psychosis; how to approach someone who may be experiencing psychosis; how to be supportive; how to deal with delusions and hallucinations; how to deal with communication difficulties; whether to encourage the person to seek professional help; what to do if the person does not want help; what to do in a crisis situation when the person has become acutely unwell; what to do if the person becomes aggressive. CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations will improve the provision of first aid to individuals who are developing a psychotic disorder by informing the content of training courses.
PMID: 17768307 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]